Japan has warned about the rapid pace at which China and North Korea have been enhancing their missile capabilities in recent years in its Defense of Japan White Paper.
The 580-page-long document, which was released by the Ministry of Defense (MoD) in Tokyo on 27 September, emphasised that China had bolstered its anti-access/area-denial (A2/AD) capabilities by reinforcing the ability of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) to mount pre-emptive precision strikes as a means to win limited regional conflicts.
The paper described such Chinese military activities as "a serious security concern for Japan" and specifically mentioned the development of China's next-generation submarine-launched ballistic missile, the JL-3, and of the Type 096 nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine.
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