NATO and other international organisations are grappling to frame a response, military or legal, to cyber attacks that fall short of war but pose potentially deadly threats to society.
“The allies now find themselves in a sort of ‘Article Four-and-a-half’ situation today, caught between crisis consultation and how to react to an attack,” said a senior allied official, referring to articles 4 and 5 of NATO’s founding Washington Treaty that govern crisis consultation procedures with other allies and activation of collective defence, respectively.
“Cyber defence now equals collective defence, but the evidence so far shows that most malicious cyber activity has been carried out below the level of warfare and armed attack.
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