On 30 November, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 2321 (2016), strengthening sanctions against coal and other exports from North Korea.
Following North Korea's fourth nuclear test in January and launch of a Space-Launch Vehicle (SLV) or satellite in February, South Korea closed the jointly operated Kaesong Industrial Zone (KIZ), and North Korea cut two of the three hotlines available for inter-Korean communication. The KIZ remains closed, and there have been no indicators of improved relations between North Korea and China since then; this diplomatic isolation of the North Korean leadership increases the risks of escalation and miscalculation arising out of violent incidents on the Korean peninsula.
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